Submissions should be made electronically through this website.
Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript:
Submissions of Reseach papers should be no more than 10,000 words in length. Short Reviews should be no longer than 3,000 words in length. These limits include all referencing and citation. All submissions should include an abstract of no more than 250 words.
Please ensure that all of the following information is fully and correctly entered into the submission system database when making the original submission. This text should be correct for publication:
title; full author name(s); affiliation(s)*; contact email address
*(for affiliation, please include department, institution, city, country)
To ensure blind peer-review, please do not include the author information within the submission files.
Author information (optional)
If you wish to provide a short biographical statement regarding the author(s), please provide this after the title page information. This will be removed during review to enure anonymity and placed before the references in the final publication
The text of the article should be prefaced by an indented abstract of no more than 250 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article.
Please include a list of 5-6 key words after the abstract.
The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.
The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research being presented.
Any acknowledgements should be in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list/bibliography.
All references cited within the submission should be listed at the end of the article. Full formatting details are given below.
Please ensure that your work is formatted to the journal style prior to publication. Authors are responsible for ensuring that their manuscripts conform to the journal style. Failure to apply this formatting may result in delayed publication and additional rounds of revision.
Capitalisation of titles
NOTE: Tier 1 subheads should follow the same rule as the titles. For lower-level subheads, only capitalise first letter (plus proper nouns).
Articles must be submitted in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings and grammar as long as they are used consistently. Some of the key differences between English and American English include the following:
Please note that when referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, you should always use the official, original spelling. For instance, it is World Health Organization, not World Health Organisation.
As with language, American or English spelling and grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently. For instance, you may use a serial comma (red, white, and blue) or not (red, white and blue).
We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent within an article. For numbers between zero and twelve we would recommend using words rather than figures, except for when it is a part of a dataset or presented in a table.
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets. For example, percentages (%) and per mil (‰) are allowed.
Please use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.
Acronyms & Abbreviations
With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader – particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed – is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references. You do not need to spell out abbreviations for US, UK, EU, UN and DC, as in Washington, DC.
Images & Figures
Images/figures are welcome as long as they provide key information related to your submission. Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, you will be asked to re-render or omit it.
Please ensure that all figures are cited within the text, in consecutive order (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2).
NOTE: Please supply all figures separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS.
The same principles which apply to figures apply to tables. They should be necessary and should not repeat significant pieces of information already included in the text.
This journal uses the MHRA (endnotes) system of references. References cited within a submission must be listed at the end of the article, in numerical order in which they appear.
NOTE: Please include DOIs for reference entries, where possible.